2.3 Vocab

Social Sciences—the use of “scientific”-like techniques to analyze human societies and discover patterns of social behavior (and social improvement)

Social Contract (NOT a literal signed contract)—a view of the relationship between the ruler and the citizens as being an unwritten agreement: each side (ruler and citizens) of the “contract” gives something up in order to receive the benefits of an organized, stable society—the citizens cannot do whatever they want (or they will be punished) and the ruler cannot do whatever s/he wants (or he/she will be overthrown)

Natural Rights—rights that are considered “natural” to humanity and cannot be taken away without a good reason

Atheist (literally, “opposing God-belief”)—a person who does not believe in any “deity” (god)

Serf—a working-class “peasant” farmer who works for a landowner/upper-class person for little wages

Capital Punishment (literally, “head punishment”)—the death penalty: traditionally by removing one’s head or hanging from the neck (in present-day U.S. more commonly administered via lethal injection)

Salon (literally, “living room”)—a gathering of intellectual figures from all disciplines, such as philosophy, science, music, literature, and religion—usually hosted by wealthy Enlightenment women

Extra (Credit) Vocab:

Baroque—a cultural emphasis on order and formality; baroque music was often written for official royal or church events, and is sometimes used today for similarly-formal occasions (ex.: Johann Sebastian Bach [1685-1750])

Neoclassical—inspired by the energy of the ancient Greeks and Romans, the neoclassical culture of the 18th century was more informal, for salons and other festive events; neoclassical music changes tempo (speed) and dynamics (volume) much more often than baroque music (ex.: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart [1756-1791])

Romantic (capital “R”)—a culture which focused more on emotion, fantasy, and Nature: Romantic music made neoclassical music seem baroque (ex.: Ludwig van Beethoven [1770-1827])